Xylotrophic discomycetes (ascomycota) of forest ecosystems of national nature park «Skolivski Beskidy»
State Natural History Museum, NAS of Ukraine
18, Teatralna St., Lviv 79008, Ukraine
Ivan Franko National University of Lviv
4, Hrushevskyi St., Lviv 79005, Ukraine
Of all groups of organisms that decompose dead wood, are the most effective wood-decay fungi or xylotrophic fungi. Fungi that break down wood play a major role in the ecology of the boreals and nemorals forests, because they are the main agents that lead to dead wood decomposition and nutrient cycling. These fungi are fungi with section Ascomycota. Discomycetes is one of the main groups of xylotrophic Ascomycota fungi. For this group of fungi characterized by open fruiting bode named apothecium. Apothecies is usually lenticular or goblet shape. In 2012–2014 on the territory of the National Nature Park « Skolivski Beskidó» studies have been conducted to establish the variety of discomycetes and the study of their ecological and biological features. According to their results in forest ecosystems of the area found 45 species xylotrophic discomycetes. The observed species belong to 25 genera, 8 families, 4 orders, 3 divisions and 3 classes of subdivision (Pezizomycotina), as well as the anamorphic fungi incertae sedis (belonging to group orders of ascus fungi) belonging to the section of Ascomycota. All identified xylotrophic discomycetes were found on 11 wood substrates, of which the largest number (25 species) were identified on the substrate Fagus sylvatica L. Apotecials wood-destroying fungi, identified four stages of degradation of the wood substrate on a scale P.V. Gordienko. Most of the identified xylotrophic discomycetes are the lignicolous destructors is dead woods, a much smaller part consists corticolous saprotrophs.
Keywords: xylotrophic fungi, discomycetes, mycobiota, wood substrate